Contemporary Classical Composer

Tonal Harmonic Vocabulary

The following charts feature the harmonic vocabulary used by eighteenth-century composers and, to varying extents, music by composers of other times and places. They are intended to succinctly capture the harmonies featured in High Baroque and Classical period scores, and to serve as a reference for the student engaged in the analysis of this and similar kinds of music. Harmonies in red are encountered in nineteenth-century scores, and are included here as bonus material.

Functional Harmonies in Major ModeClick to Open PDF